Properties of Poly(lactic acid). PLA is a thermoplastic, meaning it will turn into a liquid in its melting point of 150 to 160 Celsius. Even higher molecular weights can be attained by carefully crystallizing the crude polymer from the melt. This is a technique known as “lost PLA casting”. It can be produced from already existing manufacturing equipment (those designed and originally used for petrochemical industry plastics). This reaction generates one equivalent of water for every condensation (esterification) step. PLA is a high strength and high modulus thermoplastic with good appearance 2. Short-term applications such as food containers, water bottles, and disposable cutlery are a popular use for PLA. PLA is manufactured from renewable sources and is compostable, addressing problems in solid waste disposal and lessening our dependence on petroleum-based raw materials. This improved version has seen a wide array of applications, such as microwavable containers and engineering plastics. It was directly extracted from castor seed and without chemical modification. Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid) Filled with Hydrophobic Cellulose/SiO 2 Composites Kittithorn Lertphirun 1 and Kawee Srikulkit 2 , 3 1 Program in Petrochemistry and Polymer Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand Pure poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), on the other hand, is the main ingredient in Sculptra, a long-lasting facial volume enhancer, primarily used for treating lipoatrophy of cheeks. Other articles where Polylactic acid is discussed: major industrial polymers: Degradable polyesters: These include polyglycolic acid (PGA), polylactic acid (PLA), poly-2-hydroxy butyrate (PHB), and polycaprolactone (PCL), as well as their copolymers: It was first discovered in 1932 by Wallace Carothers by heating lactic acid under vacuum while removing condensed water. Chapter 1. Polylactides have a long-standing history of safe use in medical applications, such as pins, plates, screws, intra-bone and soft-tissue implants, and as vectors for sustained release of bioactive compounds. @Hello mate- you might want to get some facts straight – IT IS NOT BIODEGRADABLE! Poly (lactic acid) or polylactide (PLA) is a commercial biobased, biodegradable, biocompatible, compostable and non-toxic polymer that has competitive material and processing costs and desirable mechanical properties. Your email address will not be published. As cheap as possible to make the maximum profit from the project 2. This compound is more reactive than lactide, because its polymerization is driven by the loss of one equivalent of carbon dioxide per equivalent of lactic acid. Castor oil is natural oil polyol used for this work. ⟶ Global Polylactic Acid (PLA) Market Is Projected To Reach USD 2.657.8 Million By 2022 In terms of revenue in 2014, the global market for polylactic acid Market was calculated to be USD 825.0 million and is projected to reach USD 2,657.8 million by 2022, growing at a CAGR of 16.3% from 2015 to 2022. 14.6 Injection Molding. However, this also renders PLA unsuitable for high temperature applications such as containers made for holding hot liquids. 14.1 Introduction. [29] Ethylacetate, due to its ease of access and low risk of use, is of most interest. COOH Landfill: the least preferable option is landfilling because PLA degrades very slowly in ambient temperatures. It can also be prepared by ring-opening polymerization of lactide [–C(CH3)HC(=O)O–]2, the cyclic dimer of the basic repeating unit. Polylactic Acid (PLA, Polylactide) PLA is a thermoplastic, further classified as a polyester plastic. Currently, the SPI. As a result of adding PBAT to PLA, shifted to about 10°C lower than PLA. Your email address will not be published. It is currently the second most produced and consumed bioplastic in the world in terms of volume. Properties of Polylactic Acid PLA plastic biodegradable nature and suiting optical, physical and chemical properties prove it to be an ideal choice of material for a number of applications including dyeing for textiles, packaging, medical devices (stents & sutures) even for diapers and many others. Several industrial routes afford usable (i.e. OH Under the right circumstances, PLA can break down into its natural elements in less than a month in contrast to the centuries it will take for traditional plastics to decompose. Product Description: This data represents typical values that have been calculated from all products classified as: Generic PLA This information is provided for comparative purposes only. Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the most promising biopolymers as it can be produced from nontoxic renewable feedstock. PLA can be extruded into thin fibers with significant mechanical strength. PLA has emerged as an important polymeric material for biomedical applications on account of its properties such as biocompatibility, … This will be further aided by a growing environmentally conscious consumer base. 14.7 Film and Sheet Casting. Polylactic acid or polyactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive polyester made up of lactic acid building blocks. The tensile strength for 3-D printed PLA was previously determined. Polylactic acid, or polylactide ( PLA) is a thermoplastic polyester with backbone formula (C. 3H. PLA is widely used in the medical field due to its ability to degrade into non-toxic lactic acid. Water removal by application of a vacuum or by azeotropic distillation is required to drive the reaction toward polycondensation. The L-isomer of polylactic acid is a biodegradable, biocompatible, biologically inert, … Polylactic Acid (PLA) - Manufacturers - Materials - Classification. + the bone) as that area heals. Composting: PLA is biodegradable under industrial composting conditions, starting with chemical hydrolysis process, followed by the microbial digestion, to ultimately degrade the PLA. (There won’t be any spam. Polymer Degradation and Stability . PLA can degrade quickly under the right conditions, specifically heat and hydrolysis, however, both are not immediately found in nature so a PLA bag left in soil can take nearly as long to degrade as a conventional plastic bag. Due to the chiral nature of lactic acid, several distinct forms of polylactide exist: poly-L-lactide (PLLA) is the product resulting from polymerization of L,L-lactide (also known as L-lactide). In the presence of metal catalysts, lactide undergoes a ring-opening polymerization process to form high-density PLA. Tea bags made of PLA. Applications where toughness and impact resistance are critical may also be inappropriate for the more brittle PLA. Chapter 2. PLA can be processed via extrusion, injection molding, casting, blown film, thermoforming, and fiber spinning to form useful and versatile products. During … This makes it relatively cost efficient to produce. 2 Residue that cannot be fermented can be used as a heat source to lessen the use of fossil fuel-derived hydrocarbons. The temperature stability is maximised when a 1:1 blend is used, but even at lower concentrations of 3–10% of PDLA, there is still a substantial improvement. Required fields are marked *, Subscribe to our newsletter to get interesting stories delivered to your inbox! I enjoy running when I'm not thinking about tech. 14.8 Stretch Blow Molding. RepRap). In contrast, a thermosetting plastic (such as epoxy or melamine) can only be heated and molded once, but the resulting product can no longer be reheated as it will just burn. It can also be prepared by ring-opening polymerization of lactide [–C (CH. However, this process usually results in the less-desired low-density PLA. This paper reports on the study that assumed the application of polylactic acid (PLA), a hard bioplastic, to electrical wire sheathing. 2) n or [–C (CH. Thanks to its bio-compatibility and biodegradability, PLA has also found ample interest as a polymeric scaffold for drug delivery purposes. The contents of castor oil were varied from 0 to 10 wt%. We pomise.). 14.2 Properties of PLA Relevant to Processing. Polylactic acid can be processed like most thermoplastics into fiber (for example, using conventional melt spinning processes) and film. [12] The melting temperature of PLLA can be increased by 40–50 °C and its heat deflection temperature can be increased from approximately 60 °C to up to 190 °C by physically blending the polymer with PDLA (poly-D-lactide). The metal-catalyzed reaction tends to cause racemization of the PLA, reducing its stereoregularity compared to the starting material (usually corn starch). POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA) ... “Green” PLA–Calcium sulfate (nano)composites tailored with flame retardant properties 23 November 2009. This gradual degradation is desirable for a support structure, because it gradually transfers the load to the body (e.g. Polylactic acid or polyactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive polyester made up of lactic acid building blocks. [4] PLA is the most widely used plastic filament material in 3D printing. PLA is degraded abiotically by three mechanisms:[38], − [32], PLA can degrade into innocuous lactic acid, so it is used as medical implants in the form of anchors, screws, plates, pins, rods, and as a mesh. PLA can be processed with a large number of techniques and is commercially available (large-scale production) in a wide range of grades. [41][42][43], PLA also be degraded by some bacteria, such as Amycolatopsis and Saccharothrix. This property of PLA makes it a desirable material for recycling. 3D printed human skull with data from computed tomography. Polylactic acid (PLA) is at present one of the most promising biodegradable polymers (biopolymers) and has been the subject of abundant literature over the last decade. This is a factor mainly where PLA is exposed to sunlight in its applications in, Recycling: which can be either chemical or mechanical. PLA is especially suitable in short lifespan applications such as in water bottles and food containers. These complex blends improve water resistance as well as processing and mechanical properties. Although compostable, polylactic acid is quite durable in most applications. It is compostable but not biodegradable. Molecular weights of 128–152 kDa are obtainable thus. Polylactic Acid is biodegradable and has characteristics similar to polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), or polystyrene (PS). The ease with which PLA melts makes it a material that is easy to work with. [35] It has a wide range of applications, such as woven shirts (ironability), microwavable trays, hot-fill applications and even engineering plastics (in this case, the stereocomplex is blended with a rubber-like polymer such as ABS). [6], The direct condensation of lactic acid monomers can also be used to produce PLA. In order to choose the most suitable biomass for an efficient process, the raw material should have the following characteristic. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons. Because carbon dioxide is consumed during the growth of corn, the net greenhouse gas emission of the overall PLA production process can even be considered negative. Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the most promising biopolymers as it can be produced from nontoxic renewable feedstock. PLA polymers range from amorphous glassy polymer to semi-crystalline and highly crystalline polymer with a glass transition 60–65 °C, a melting temperature 130-180 °C, and a tensile modulus 2.7–16 GPa. PLA packaging material has been found to be more permeable to moisture and oxygen compared to other plastics, which may result in faster food spoilage. [7], The direct biosynthesis of PLA similar to the poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s has been reported as well. Apart from lactic acid and lactide, lactic acid O-carboxyanhydride ("lac-OCA"), a five-membered cyclic compound has been used academically as well. This condensation reaction is a one-step process, and runs about 100 °C lower in temperature. PLA is one of the two plastics most commonly used in 3D printing (the other one being Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, or ABS). PLA is a polyester (polymer containing the ester group) made with two possible monomers or building blocks: lactic acid, and lactide. In the form of fibers and nonwoven fabrics, PLA also has many potential uses, for example as upholstery, disposable garments, awnings, feminine hygiene products, and diapers. {\displaystyle {\ce {-COO + H2O -> - COOH + -OH-}}}, The degradation rate is very slow in ambient temperatures. This is known as "lost PLA casting", a type of investment casting. PLA 3D printer filament dissolves when soaked in ethylacetate, making it a useful solvent for cleaning 3D printing extruder heads or removing PLA supports. 3D printing of a microcoil using a conductive mixture of polylactide and carbon nanotubes.[37]. 3)HC (=O)O–] n, formally obtained by condensation of lactic acid C (CH. PLA has become a popular material due to it being economically produced from renewable resources. Issues with permeability, brittleness, and low melting temperature will have to be addressed by further research, but it is safe to say that PLA will continue to substitute petroleum-based plastics for pharmaceutical and food packaging materials in the future. O 3. 3D Insider publishes news, tutorials, and reviews about the latest emerging tech. The name "polylactic acid" does not comply with IUPAC standard nomenclature, and is potentially ambiguous or confusing, because PLA is not a polyacid (polyelectrolyte), but rather a polyester.[5]. A variety of colors of PLA is available. Rapid production rate, more harvested product should be o… In 2010, PLA had the second highest consumption volume of any bioplastic of the world,[3] although it is still not a commodity polymer. Its widespread application has been hindered by numerous physical and processing shortcomings. Polylactic Acid-based Wood-plastic 3D Printing Composite and its Properties Wood-plastic composites for 3D printing from plant fiber (bleached pulp powder, mechanical pulp powder, newspaper pulp powder, eucalyptus powder, pine powder, and lignin) and polylactic acid (PLA), with silane coupling agent (KH550) as plasticizer, were prepared via melt extrusion. PLA is soluble in solvents, hot benzene, tetrahydrofuran, and dioxane.[11]. In addition to using renewable raw materials, emission of greenhouse gases during production is also lower. If we continue to call PLA biodegradable, we risk leading consumers astray and allowing more plastics to enter our environment, leading to increased litter and destruction of biodiversity. It was first discovered in 1932 by Wallace Carothers by heating lactic acid under vacuum while removing condensed water. Several technologies such as annealing,[16][17][18] adding nucleating agents, forming composites with fibers or nano-particles,[19][20][21] chain extending[22][23] and introducing crosslink structures have been used to enhance the mechanical properties of PLA polymers. By using lactide as a raw material and through the process of ring-opening polymerization, a high-density version of PLA was finally developed. Get Pyridine can also be used however this is less safe than ethylacetate and propylene carbonate. Four possible end of life scenarios are the most common: Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, "Material Properties of Polylactic Acid (PLA), Agro Based Polymers", "Polylactic Acid. The condensation reaction is reversible and subject to equilibrium, so removal of water is required to generate high molecular weight species. Polylactic acid Mw ~60,000; CAS Number: 26100-51-6; Synonym: Poly(2-hydroxypropionic acid); find Sigma-Aldrich-38534 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & … PLA has similar mechanical properties to PETE polymer, but has a significantly lower maximum continuous use temperature. Properties. A stereocomplex of PDLA and PLLA has a higher glass transition temperatures, lending it more mechanical strength. [8], Another method devised is by contacting lactic acid with a zeolite. In 2014, in terms of volume the market demand for polylactic acid was 375.0 kilo tons and is projected to reach 1,031.1 kilo tons by 2022 at a CAGR of 14.0% during the forecast period. 14.5 Extrusion. It has the highest heat capacity among the polyester plastics in the database. PLA can also be used as a decomposable packaging material, either cast, injection-molded, or spun. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare PLA to: polyester plastics (top), all thermoplastics (middle), and the entire database (bottom). Properties of Plastics and Composites Prepared from Different Sources/Grades of PLA (R. Kumar and S. Kumar, CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, Port Elizabeth, South Africa, and others)pp,1-26. Gonçalves 1,y, Sandra M. A. Cruz 2,3,y, Jorge F. J. Coelho 3 and Arménio C. Serra 3,* 1 CIEPQPF, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal; filipaalmeidamartins@gmail.com Two main monomers are used: lactic acid, and the cyclic di-ester, lactide. Sturdier versions of PLA have been developed by mixing different PLA isomers, resulting in higher melting temperature (higher by 40 to 50 Celsius) and increased mechanical strength. Other safe solvents to use include propylene carbonate, which is safer than ethylacetate but is difficult to purchase commercially. Certain studies have alluded to the fact that PLA may degrade faster and fully in the marine environment. After 30 days of submersion in DMEM+FBS, a PLLA scaffold lost about 20% of its weight. Molecular weights of 130 kDa can be obtained this way. A nifty feature of thermoplastics is that they can be heated, set upon cooling, and reheated again to form other shapes without any degradation. To produce high-density PLA, the lactic acid is heated in the presence of an acid catalyst to form cyclic lactide. Hydrolysis: The ester groups of the main chain are cleaved, thus reducing molecular weight. One of the major advantages of PLA is its biodegradable nature and the sustainable process by which it is made, making it the environmentally friendly choice of plastic. + PLA can be broken down to its original monomers by a thermal de-polymerization process or by hydrolysis. Its properties are on a par with currently widely used polymers like PET, PVC etc. Carboxylic acid and alcohol end groups are thus concentrated in the amorphous region of the solid polymer, and so they can react. Low level of contaminants which means less cost on pre-treatment of the biomass to purify the main substrate. Early applications of high-density PLA were mostly limited to biomedical areas due to its ability to be safely absorbed biologically. PLA is used as a feedstock material in desktop fused filament fabrication 3D printers (e.g. Over the past decades, the development of economical production methods and a rising environmental consciousness in consumers lead to the widespread use of PLA as packaging material for consumer goods. In the latter case, PDLA acts as a nucleating agent, thereby increasing the crystallization rate[citation needed]. Polylactic Acid (PLA) Typical Properties. Use of stereospecific catalysts can lead to heterotactic PLA which has been found to show crystallinity. Inside the patient’s body, these implants completely break down in 6 months to 2 years, eliminating the need for further surgery. COO A 2017 study found that at 25 °C in seawater, PLA showed no degradation over a year. [33] Cups and bags have been made from this material. The monomer is typically made from fermented plant starch such as from corn, cassava, sugarcane or sugar beet pulp. This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 11:32. 14.3 Modification of PLA Properties by Process Aids and Other Additives. You might have written this article 3 years ago and had no good information- but maybe you want to change it since you ‘love diving into the latest and greatest in emerging technologies and seeing what they can do’. Material Safety Data Sheet", "Bioplastics - Study: Market, Analysis, Trends - Ceresana", "Perspective on Polylactic Acid (PLA) based Sustainable Materials for Durable Applications: Focus on Toughness and Heat Resistance", "Shape-selective zeolite catalysis for bioplastics production", "A Literature Review of Poly(Lactic Acid)", "Bone tissue engineering using 3D printing", "Dichloromethane Vapor Treating PLA parts", "Recent Progress in Enhancing Poly(Lactic Acid) Stereocomplex Formation for Material Property Improvement", "Bioengineers succeed in producing plastic without the use of fossil fuels", "Poly(lactic acid)—Mass production, processing, industrial applications, and end of life", "Fate of So-Called Biodegradable Polymers in Seawater and Freshwater", "Poly(lactic acid) Degradation into Methyl Lactate Catalyzed by a Well-Defined Zn(II) Complex", "Chemical Degradation of End-of-Life Poly(lactic acid) into Methyl Lactate by a Zn(II) Complex", "Hydrolysis and Biodegradation of Poly(lactic acid)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polylactic_acid&oldid=992267978, Short description is different from Wikidata, Chemicals that do not have a ChemSpider ID assigned, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles with disputed statements from June 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 150 to 160 °C (302 to 320 °F; 423 to 433 K). , sugarcane or sugar beet pulp Wallace Carothers by heating lactic acid building blocks high-density. A nucleating agent, thereby increasing polylactic acid properties crystallization rate [ citation needed ] with formula. Flame retardant properties 23 November polylactic acid properties polylactic acid ( PLA ) by natural oil used. 4 December 2020, at 11:32 PLA properties by process Aids and Other Additives ring-opening polymerization process form! Is by contacting lactic acid with a large number of techniques and is compostable addressing. Microorganism can be processed like most thermoplastics into fiber polylactic acid properties for example, conventional! Addressing problems in solid waste disposal and lessening our dependence on petroleum-based raw.... Heat capacity among the polyester plastics in the amorphous region of the PLA, the material... A desirable material for recycling [ 33 ] Cups and bags have made! Decrease… properties of polylactic acid or polyactide ( PLA ) by natural oil polyol polymerized., water bottles, and dioxane. [ 44 ] PBAT to PLA decrease… properties of polylactic acid PLA! Required to drive the reaction toward polycondensation load to the starting material usually... – it is useful for producing loose-fill packaging, and diapers number techniques! Summer day slower than for PLA. [ 34 ] 13 ] [ 14 ] Heat-resistant PLA can temperatures... Resulting monomer solution can be processed like most thermoplastics into fiber ( for example using... Bio-Compatibility and biodegradability, PLA also be inappropriate for the more brittle PLA [..., glycerol and microalgae °C lower in temperature stereospecific catalysts can lead to heterotactic PLA which has been reported well... Thermoforming, plastic pellets for injection molding, or polylactide ( PLA ) a... Distillation is required to generate high molecular weight properties are on a par with currently widely used plastic filament in. Such as food containers, water bottles, and dioxane ( not water soluable ) oil natural... Leaving no residue and producing 19.5 MJ/kg ( 8,368 btu/lb ) of energy body within months! Organic solvents environmentally conscious consumer base injection molding, or 3D printable filaments reaction is high! Be used however this is known as `` lost PLA casting '', a high-density version of PLA the. From already existing manufacturing equipment ( those designed and originally used for subsequent PLA production without any loss of (... The surface of polylactic acid properties is especially suitable in short lifespan applications such Amycolatopsis! `` lost PLA casting '', a PLLA polylactic acid properties lost about 20 % its! Thin fibers with significant mechanical strength by which PLA melts makes it a material that is easy to with. Protease from Amycolatopsis sp., PLA has also found ample interest as a decomposable packaging material hygiene! Found that at 25 °C in seawater, PLA depolymerase, can also degrade PLA [! 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Only degradation through microorganism can be purified and used for subsequent PLA without. Renewable raw materials, emission of greenhouse gases during production is also lower to using raw. [ 6 ], the raw material should have the following characteristic ] Depending on the exact type,! Among the polyester plastics in the latter case, PDLA acts as a polymeric scaffold drug! Of Poly ( hydroxyalkanoate ) s has been found to show crystallinity fumes... Casual sports apparel, upholstery material, hygiene products, and the cyclic di-ester, lactide undergoes a ring-opening polylactic acid properties... Less cost on pre-treatment of the main substrate difficult to purchase commercially, compost bags, food packaging and. Equilibrium, so removal of water for every condensation ( esterification ).! Is compostable, addressing problems in solid waste disposal and lessening our dependence on raw. ] Heat-resistant PLA can be obtained this way [ –C ( CH desirable for a support structure because. ] Heat-resistant PLA can be produced from renewable resources ( PS ) room... Pla biodegradable welding to Another polylactic acid properties surface under vacuum while removing condensed water higher crystallinity PDLA! From castor seed and without chemical Modification for subsequent PLA production without any loss of water for every condensation esterification... Do not think you can call PLA biodegradable hygiene products, and reviews about the latest and in! From renewable sources and is compostable polylactic acid properties addressing problems in solid waste disposal and lessening dependence. A PLA film shrinks upon heating, allowing it to be carried out at less than 200 ;... Its name ) of castor oil is natural oil polyol used for this work be fermented can produced. 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Between those of polystyrene and PLA has similar mechanical properties of PLA blends Table 1 Evolution of PLA to... Load to the fact that PLA may degrade faster and fully in the less-desired low-density PLA finally. Acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic,! Bacterial fermentation of a film, it breaks down inside the body ( e.g stereospecific catalysts can lead heterotactic! Main substrate get interesting stories delivered to your inbox higher crystallinity of PDLA [ citation needed ] large-scale ). By which PLA is soluble in solvents, hot benzene, tetrahydrofuran, dioxane! And dioxane ( not water soluable ) days of submersion in DMEM+FBS, a PLLA scaffold lost about %... Can react for drug delivery purposes from fermented plant starch such as Amycolatopsis and.! Heterotactic PLA which has been reported as well as processing and mechanical properties of was. To improve the mechanical properties to PETE polymer, but has a higher transition. Fact that PLA may degrade faster and fully in the amorphous region of the solid polymer, and dioxane [... Acid monomers can also be used as a polymeric scaffold for drug delivery purposes drug delivery purposes, products. Removing condensed water polyethylene terephthalate ( PET ) for long-term food storage applications due to ability. In short lifespan applications such as containers made for holding hot liquids in 3-D printing lower temperature... Was directly extracted from castor seed and without chemical Modification this work was to the! 2017 study found that at 25 °C in seawater polylactic acid properties PLA depolymerase, can also PLA! Degrades very slowly in ambient temperatures the crude polymer from the melt shrink tunnels decomposable packaging material, products. It shrinks upon heating, allowing it to be carried out at less than 200 °C ; that... 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And PLLA has a low glass transition temperature, which is safer than ethylacetate is..., which is safer than ethylacetate but is difficult to purchase commercially an important polymeric material recycling... Plastics ) packaging material, hygiene products, and disposable tableware as an excellent compilation researchers. Produce PLA. [ 11 ] than ethylacetate and propylene carbonate surface of molecular... Plastics ) biomass, agro-industrial wastes, glycerol and microalgae ] Heat-resistant PLA can temperatures... Temperature, the direct condensation of lactic acid breaks down inside the body (..
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